{br} STUCK with your assignment? {br} When is it due? {br} Get FREE assistance. Page Title: {title}{br} Page URL: {url}
UK: +44 748 007-0908, USA: +1 917 810-5386 [email protected]

Diesel engines are used in millions of buses, trucks, and automobiles throughout the world

Diesel engines are used in millions of buses, trucks, and automobiles throughout the world. It’s easy to see why they are so popular. They’re reliable, durable, and cheap to run. They use 25 to 50 percent less fuel per mile than their gasoline fueled counterparts, and emit that much less carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). Since diesel fuel burns more completely than gasoline, they have lower hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. That’s why diesels power 95% of the nation’s heavy trucks and buses, and nearly one-third of new passenger cars in Europe.

On the other hand, diesels have a reputation for being smelly and polluting. Today’s diesels have higher emissions of particulate matter (PM), otherwise known as soot-and by any name a lung irritant, and maybe a carcinogen. They also spew oxides of nitrogen (NOX), which contribute indirectly to smog by helping form ozone when exposed to heat and sunshine. These problems have brought diesels into the cross-hairs of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA’s new air quality and emission regulations present serious engineering challenges for the builders of diesel vehicles.

Real engineers/scientists need to serve both goals. Our field is about trade-offs, after all. Every project requires trading off criteria such as cost, performance, reliability, and long life. It is not much of a stretch, is it, to include other criteria that are important to society, such as environmental quality, economic growth, education, and public health?

This case study explores these trade-offs and the resulting public debate from four policy perspectives. In your teams, during class time, address one of the four policy perspectives. A group assignment will follow on Angel.

These are the four policy perspectives:
1. Federal Agencies / Legal Authority
2. Engineering/Science Response
3. Code & Standards
4. Societal Impact & Cost vs. Benefit


Assignment – Part I
In groups of three, write a research paper. Address the following questions related to the case study: The Diesel Dilemma: Costs, Benefits, & Trade-Off. You must state your references clearly in the answers. A minimum of three references are needed for each one of the four policy perspectives (i.e. minimum of 12 references are required). Include an introduction and a conclusion. Points will be assigned to each section.

Federal & State Agencies/ Legal Authorities (20 points)
1. Describe the public policy process for establishing emissions standards for diesel engines. What federal authorities are involved and what is the role for each?
2. Why has the process for establishing diesel engine emissions standards taken so long?
3. What is the Freedom of Information Act and what role has it played in the debate over diesel emissions?
4. What is the current status of the diesel emissions standards and what is likely to happen next?

Engineering/Scientific Response (25 points)
1. How big is the emission problem of diesel engines? How much diesel fuel is used in the U.S. compared to gasoline?
2. How much does the diesel engine contribute to pollution compared to gasoline engines? What are the differences between the types of pollution?
3. How do you normalize or compare diesel vs. gasoline pollution impacts?
4. How does the diesel engine work? Contrast it to a gasoline engine.
5. What are the characteristics of diesel fuel that differ from gasoline?

Codes & Standards (10 points)
1. How do different organizations collaborate in setting standards for diesel fuel and why is this important? Justify your answer.
2. What is the difference between the role of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and professional associations such as the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in the standards setting process, or an environmental society?

Societal Impact: Cost vs. Benefit (10 points)
1. What would be the effects of taking diesel engines off the road? Justify your answer.
2. What are the alternative transportation modes that would replace diesel, and their resulting environmental impact? Justify your answer.
Assignment – Part II (20 points)
Answer the following question, include any appropriate references.
What are the top ten actions, in priority order, that federal policymakers could take to enhance the science and technology enterprise so the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21st Century?

Format (15 points)
• The first lines of your report must be centered with your names and assignment related information.
• You must include an introduction and a conclusion.
• You must cite all the references employed. You must cite a minimum of 12 references. These include internet sites. If you use the internet, use trustworthy sites, i.e. edu, org, gov.
• Similar essays will be penalized. Blackboard checks the originality of your article. If you plagiarism is evident, you will receive zero (0) points for this article


Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!