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Occupational Therapy Case Study

Nicholas is four years old and has autism and intellectual disability. You will see him in his early intervention program where he spends three days with a small number of other children who have various physical and developmental disabilities.  You will also see his early intervention teacher and a early education assistant who is sitting behind him. Nicholas is non-verbal and has no signing or formal alternative communication methods established.  He is largely toilet trained and eats independently when food is given to him.
The preschool has sought the advice of a consultant occupational therapist (you) about what they could do to best prepare him for more formal learning, for example engagement in tasks such as colour, cut, paste, blocks, puzzles, toys, painting as well as outdoor play and formal group language and story time.
One short term early intervention goal is for Nicholas to use play objects (e.g. toys, blocks, puzzles) and tools (paint brush, crayon) in preparation for formal instruction in school skills.  You will see one of the classroom assistants trying to teach Nicholas how to engage in group story time.
The assignment is in two parts.
PART A (25 marks):  Observe Nicholas during school time.
Assess the quality of his instruction relative to the six principles of systematic instruction covered in this UOS:
•    Occupational cue
•    Goal
•    Instruction (cues and prompts Nicholas can process in general (leading to incidental learning), and those that are purposefully used by the instructor).
•    Practice
•    Variability
•    Feedback

PART B (35 marks):
Develop an instruction plan to suit the situation that can be carried out by the early intervention teachers.
1.    Identify the learning needs in the situation (who needs to learn what?) using the M.A.T.C.H. mnemonic presented in this UOS.
2.    Based on your analysis, construct a learning plan for both Nicholas and the assistant using the six principles of instruction.
•    Occupational cue:  (what materials/tasks would you suggest the assistant uses and why)
•    Goal: (what do you specifically hope is achieved by Nicholas and the assistant at the conclusion of your consultation)
•    Instruction: (what cues and prompts should be applied to Nicholas’s instruction and why:  what instruction are you going to suggest the assistant use for the activity you have chosen)
•    Practice:  (what practice schedules are you going to suggest be used with Nicholas and why:  how will you apply the concept of practice schedules to your teaching of the assistant)
•    Variation: (how much variation should be introduced and why?)
•    Feedback: (how do you suggest the assistance use feedback to enhance Nicholas’s learning: how will you utilise feedback to reinforce what you have taught the assistant).
3.    How will you measure the effectiveness of your intervention?

Observation from the video: Task- clapping hands

Physical prompts:
•    Singing songs and clap hands
•    Nicolas is touching his nose and not focusing on the songs
•    Attempt to touch the spoon and not pay attention to the task

Verbal cues:
Clap your____? Lets sing.
Teacher pick up a spoon and asks the kids “what spoon is it, happy spoon or sad spoon?”
Other kids can response the questions but he couldn’t.
If you are happy and you know how to clap your hands
1.    singing cue (physical prompts by teacher) to clap your hands
2.    attention problem (try to grab the board)
3.    if you are sad and you know you will cry
4.    This is a spoon, what do we see on the spoon, is this a happy spoon or sad spoon. (show the spoon to Nicholas) Watching, is the spoon still happy? Sad!!! How can you tell? Distracted by other student. Oh, sad now. So sad.

Environment: childcare centre; other kids around him have cerebral palsy.

Points to consider:
•    too much help from the teacher
•    Massed, blocked practice to clap hands
•    Distractive environment, Nicholas did not respond to teacher’s answers
•    Sitting on the chair with belts when asked for doing the task


Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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