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Instructions: Please read both post and provide a minimum of 2 paragraph response to each one. Please use 2 references in each response. Provide citations at end of response.
Tiffany- Discussion 1
In this week’s discussion we were asked to choose one of the trauma contexts described in Levers chapter 5-26. One of the topics that stood out to me is loss and grief. I recently lost my father on January 23, 2021. So, this topic hit home to me. The reason why I chose this topic is because at one time or another someone has experienced loss and grief.
When reading this week’s discussion on trauma, I noticed that there are different opinions about the connection existing between trauma and loss. It is stated that wherever there is trauma, there tends to be some sort of loss, grief, or destabilization. According to Marich (2020), when a natural disaster or violent accident occurs, the loss of safety and security in the world, a loss of innocence, or loss of hope can manifest. What this means is that the loss of people, ideals, or certain situations can be seen as a traumatic experience. In traumatic events, the person can have feelings, thoughts, and dynamics. Some clients experience high anxiety, overwhelming guilt, shame, depression or suicidality (Briere & Scott, 2015).
Most trauma-informed professionals are able to recognize that if the grief is not experienced appropriately and healed, it will affect people. Bereavement is known as a stage that occurs in the grief process it is also frequently experienced by people who are exposed to war, violence, disaster, accidents, and other traumatic events. Some communities of trauma-exposed bereaved adults with Prolonged Grief Disorder and PTSD, the adults showed similar signs of social isolation, a diminished sense of self, difficulties accepting loss, and a challenge on continuing to move on with life (Djelantik et al., 2019).
Levers describes normative and non-normative loses. However, when a loss is normative, it is still a destabilizing process, because it also promotes self-reflection and grown in the person who although is affected, is still able to be validated and supported. With the recent loss of my father I will say that I am learning to self-reflect and grow as a person through the pain I am experiencing. Although, sudden death, suicide, miscarriages, stillbirths, abortions, Aids and so much more are considered non-normative losses. With these losses it is a requirement that people seek attention from their therapist. Levers (2012) states, “We must allow clients who are mourning to make meaning of their loss and process their injuries and traumas in a personalized manner. John 16:22 states, “So with you: Now is your time to grief, but I will see you again and you will rejoice, and no one will take away your joy. As a Christian counselor, they should be able to provide a safe place for those who are experiencing a time of loss to mourn and process the traumatic experiences.
Grief therapy would be most helpful for those who have experienced a loss. However, the therapist must be willing to engage with the client in a caring and authentic way and show genuine curiosity to learn more about the people’s story. There is a framework for intervention known as the four V’s; validate, verifying, ventilation, and visionary. It is vital to validate the individual’s right to more. You must be able to recognize and discuss the value of who or what the person recently lost. Verifying is the intervention that assist the client in gathering different moments that make their loss real. Ventilation occurs after the person is urged to express their emotions and let it all out (Levers, 2012). During the ventilation stage, a counselor should remain quiet and offer support as the person goes through their thoughts and feelings. The last stage is visionary, during this time, the counselor helps the person recognize future events that will intensify the persons feelings of grief. Therapists must always remain open and reflective of new methods of grief and trauma theories while using the data they collect from each interaction with the person mourning.
Experiencing any type of loss or grief can be detrimental to anyone and has even became more relevant. Trauma practitioners must be prepared to address the issues of loss and grief as they are rising daily. There are so many groups of people who have experienced losses and were affected. We must be ready to offer support and comfort for those in need with the tools we have acquired as therapists and the comfort and confidence we have been blessed with by God.

Briere, J. N., & Scott, C. (2015). Principles of trauma therapy: A guide to symptoms, evaluation, and treatment (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Djelantik, A. A., Robinaugh, D. J., Kleber, R.J., Smid, G.E., & Boelen, P.A. (2019). Symptomatology following loss and trauma: Latent class and network analyses of prolonged grief disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in a treatment seeking trauma-exposed sample. Depression and Anxiety, 37(1), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22880.
Levers, L.L (2012). Trauma counseling: Theories and interventions. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Marich, J. (2020). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Can grief and loss be traumatic? Gulf Bend MHMR Center. https://www/gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=55728&cn=109

Tawnya- Discussion 2
School violence and trauma as defined by Levers (2012) can be lethal or nonlethal “acts of aggression that take place in the school building or on school property at after-hours school sponsored activities or to a student or faculty member coming to or going from school” (p. 336).
Personal Characteristics
The personal characteristics for a practitioner working with students who have experienced school violence or trauma are the core foundations of client-centered therapy: empathy, congruence, and unconditional positive regard (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2014). Levers (2012) discussed the importance of establishing positive interactions with students who have been harmed, including demonstrating warmth and interest, forming trusting relationships, and treating everyone with dignity and respect (p. 337). Those who are in the helping profession adhere to Philippians 2:3-4, “Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather in humility value others above yourselves, not looking to your own interests but each of you to the interests of the others” (New International Version, 1973/2015).
A practitioner needs to have an understanding of the common reactions to trauma and developmental behavioral responses for children who are 5 years and younger, elementary-aged children (ages 6-11 years old), and adolescents (ages 12-17 years of age) (Levers, 2012, p. 337). Practitioners should be familiar with the DSM-5 differentiations between “normal and aberrant responses in children” (Levers, 2012, p. 340). Additionally, counselors need to be trauma-informed, “All staff members need to understand what trauma is, what it looks like and how it affects students and families” (Cole et al., 2013, as cited in Rumsey & Milsom, 2019, p. 4).
Practitioners who offer long-term counseling for violence-exposed students need to have training in cognitive-behavioral and solution-focused theories. The specific cognitive-behavioral therapies that are used with traumatized children are Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) (Levers, 2012, p. 342). Rumsey and Milson (2019, p. 4) explain that school counselors must understand trauma-informed procedures as outlined by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA, 2014) including:

  1. Realize what trauma is and its effects on people.

Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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