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Biology immunology

Answer all the questions correctly and clearly

1.    Cytokines are proteins made by cells that affect the behavior of other cells and/or themselves. A specific subset of cytokines that are involved in crosstalk between leukocytes are termed:

2.    The action of cytokines can be classified into 3 main categories.

When cytokines act on the same cell that produces the cytokine the action is termed:

When cytokines act on a nearby cell the action is termed:

When cytokines act enter the circulation and act on a distant cell the action is termed:

3.    Treatment of B cells with IL-4 can induce 10ng/ml of IgE production by B cells. Treatment of B cells with IL-5 can induce 20ng/ml of IgE production by B cells. Treatment of B cells with IL-4 and IL-5 together can induce 100ng/ml of IgE production by B cells. The function of IL-4 and IL-5 together to induce IgE production by B cells can best be described as:

4.    Activated macrophages secrete a range of cytokines. List 3 cytokines typically made by these cells:

5.    Charles A. Dinarello is reknowned for discovering which cytokine?

6.    T cell growth factor (TCGF), subsequently renamed IL-2 was discovered by:

7.    A workup of blood from a patient show that T cells can’t be activated very well. It is discovered that the patient’s T cells can make IL-2 but that the IL-2 can only bind to IL-2 receptor with very low affinity. What IL-2 receptor signaling chains are missing/defective in this patient?

8.    IL-2 is critically involved in T cell activation. Surprisingly, IL-2 deficient mice show T cell hyperactivation and autoimmunity. What specific type of cell is defective in IL-2 deficient mice and responsible for the autoimmunity that develops?

9.    Endotoxic shock is mediated primarily by a cytokine that leads to cachexia (wasting). Name this cytokine:

10.    Who discovered TNF?

11.    The Th1/Th2 paradigm was proposed by Tim Mossman and Robert Coffman in the late 1980s. Name the Th1 cytokine and Th2 cytokine that they first worked on:

12.    This Th1 cytokine and Th2 cytokine inhibit the action of one another in a process that can best be described as:

13.    Name the type of epithelial cells in the intestine that secrete antibacterial defensins:

14.    What is the most abundant immunoglobulin isotype produced at mucosal surfaces?

15.    Many antigens/bacteria in the intestine can enter the body through specialized epithelial cells overlying the Peyer’s patches. What is the name of these specialized cells?

16.    A unique population of T cells exist between epithelial cells in the intestine. What are these cells called and what is 1 marker that they express?

17.    If you want to make a vaccine that induces lymphocytes to migrate effectively to the intestine, what specific integrin molecule would you want to induce on the surface of the lymphocytes?

18.    What specific region of the human intestine do most bacteria reside in?

19.    Peripheral tolerance is an important was to prevent autoimmunity. Name 1 mechanism that helps to maintain peripheral tolerance.

20.    Chronic inflammation induced by immune reactivity to a self-antigen can lead to tissue destruction and subsequent immune reactivity to addition sel-antigens. This process is called:

21.    In Celiac disease, an injested protein is deaminated by tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and presented by HLA-DQ to induce effector Th1 cells that lead to inflammation and villous atrophy. What is the ingested protein that leads to Celiac disease?

22.    There are 4 major types of hypersensitivity. Which type is mediated primarily by cellular (not humoral) immune responses?

23.    Allergy is a type of hypersensitivity. What isotype of immunoglobulin is most involved in allergy and what cell type does this isotype of immunoglobulin work on to induce degranulation?

24.    Type I hypersensitivity leads to a very quick early response (within minutes). Name a major molecule involved in this early response and name one of the biological effects of this molecule.

25.    On planet Mars you find aliens that have blood group antigens very different than humans. Instead of ABO blood group antigens, they have WTF blood group antigens. In these aliens immune responses are never induced against “F” antigens. An alien with WF blood can receive blood from aliens with what other 3 types of alien blood?

26.    Name 2 types of primary humoral immunodeficiency disorders:

27.    DiGeorge Syndrome is a type of cellular (T-cell) immunodeficiency. What is the major organ affected in DiGeorge Syndrome?

28.    In addition to being hairless, nude mice are also immunodeficient.  Bill and Ted, 2 well-meaning graduate students, each plan a way to attempt to treat this immunodeficiency. Bill chooses to transfer nude mice millions of B cells. Ted chooses to give the nude mice a bone marrow transplant. Their professor tells them that both of the plans will fail. Why?

29.    A patient is shown to have an X linked disorder with poor T cell function that is driven primarily by defects in the cytoskeleton such that good T cell/DC interactions do not take place. What is the name of this syndrome?

30.    Cancer cells can express 2 main cell surface proteins that induce NK cells to lyse them. Name these 2 cell surface proteins and name the protein that they interact with on NK cells.

31.    There are several ways in which tumors can escape immune recognition. List 3 such mechanisms:

32.    Describe the immunological process that leads to hemolytic disease of the newborn (7 points).


Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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