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As behavioral finance gains traction, new concepts are uncovered and introduced to the finance domain to enable people to properly understand how different humans behave in certain circumstances and why they do so. In their research, Klinger et al. (2014) have already indicated the increasing attention to this domain since, under different scenarios and in various situations, humans behave differently. Despite the field of finance being broad and despite it offering a huge scope of perspectives to research, Klinger et al. (2014) narrow down the areas of research to four main branches, namely, DNA analysis and financial behaviors, investor data and behavior, investor reaction, and experimental market assets. While some topics offer unique positions on the subject, DNA analysis and financial behaviors has reshaped how institutions and individuals view people with more research attempting to identify the existence of the above trend in the genes, the decision making, risk taking, co-holding, and financial knowledge. These topics will give an idea of the current topics researched in the field of financial behavior.
In one of the latest researches on the topic, the focus was given on understanding whether Dopamine Receptor D4 motivates people to engage in the investment activity. This research was complementary to a previous citation by Klinger et al. (2014) that attempted to link credit card borrowing and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene. The perspective of linking genes to various financial behavioral decision seems to be a trend, and as Muda et al. (2018) expound, other researchers have previously carried out the same idea with some linking the D$4 gene to risk taking. Although experts note that their research did not make any conclusive results to settle this debate, they note the potential to expand this study to other areas. This study contributes to the field of behavioral finance to continuously explore the discussion of how genes, which are segments of the DNA, shape behavior.
The element of decision making has also been introduced to be a part of financial decision making. In their research, Valaskova et al. (2019) studied this perspective to determine how it manifests in the process of making financial decisions. This element was raised in a previous study by Klinger et al. (2014) who argued that irrelevant changes in the decision environment can affect the behaviour of firms. Valaskova et al. (2019 extend their discussion to apply the fuzzy sets to both people and institutions. The research concludes that it is indeed possible to model human decision making. This research as well contributes to the argument that it is possible to ascertain human behavior under certain scenarios. This view emphasizes exploring this behavioral finance to uncover what more exists.
Risk taking perspective also falls under DNA analysis and financial behavior. In their article, Aydemir and Aren (2017) examine the possibility of individual factors manifesting on certain risky investments. Their research explores risk taking and an individual’s literacy level. In their result section, the authors settle on both locus of control and emotional intelligence positively impacting risk taking, while risk aversion has a negative impact. This study also introduces a new dimension on how risk is likely to manifest at an institutional level, explaining the type of skills that institutions should consider to hire.
The fourth article under this review explores the co-holding puzzle. The argument of Co-holding was previous introduced by Klinger et al. (2014) as a citation and alongside to self-control and financial literacy with the initial research finding its existence. However, in their research, Olafsson and Cathergood (2020) introduce data to find patterns studying co-holding at the daily frequency as opposed to the month frequency. They find patterns and further explore the rationalizations behind this topic. This research complements prior studies in noting the existence of the co-holding behavior.
The last article under this review highlights financial knowledge, confidence, credit use, and financial satisfaction, which are perspectives that were initially researched by prior researchers. In their research, Atlas et al. (2019) attempt to find the right mix of knowledge to facilitate better financial behavior and choices. Their research finds that confidence has a strong association to credit card usage, which leads to financial satisfaction. This research is complementary of previous research to determine whether there have been any differences on the topic.
This review investigates five articles to obtain an idea of the changes that may have taken place. The review identifies five random article highlighting different views of financial behavior. While not much difference has been witnessed save for the exception of studying genes, all the other papers introduce different dimensions of the topic that were studied previously. The topics shift their attention much more to the current scenarios.


Altas, S. A., Lu, J., Micu, P. D., & Porto, N. (2019). Financial knowledge, confidence, credit use,
and financial satisfaction. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 30(2), 175–190. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1241045.pdf

Aydemir, S. D., & Aren, S. (2017). Do the effects of individual factors on financial risk-taking
behavior diversify with financial literacy? Kybernetes, 46(10), 1706-1734 https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1108/K-10-2016-0281

Kliger, D., van den Assem, M. J., & Zwinkels, R. C. J. (2014). Empirical behavioral
finance. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 107(Part B), 421–427. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Martijn_Van_Den_Assem/publication/267628704_Empirical_Behavioral_Finance/links/5a43b288458515f6b052c0db/Empirical-Behavioral-Finance.pdf

Muda, R., Kicia, M., Michalak-Wojnowska, M., Ginszt, M., Filip, A., Gawda, P., & Majcher, P.
(2018). The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) and financial risk-taking: Stimulating and instrumental risk-taking propensity and motivation to engage in investment activity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00034

Olafsson, A., & Gathergood, J. (2020). The Co-holding Puzzle: New Evidence from Transaction-
level Data. https://www.fdic.gov/bank/analytical/cfr/consumer/2020/gathergood.pdf
Valaskova, K., Bartosova, V., & Kubala, P. (2019). Behavioural aspects of the financial
decision-making. Organizacija, 52(1), 22–31. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2019-0003

Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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