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4-2. “Values and Beliefs” The textbook authors cite research on Moral Foundations Theory by Jon Haidt and colleagues. Based on Haidt’s work, what do the textbook authors cite as the “most sacred moral value” for liberals? For conservatives? Describe a moral attitude / belief of your own that is related to the “most sacred moral value” of the political group (liberals or conservatives) you more strongly identify with. Do you have any attitudes / beliefs that are consistent with the “most sacred value” of the other group? Why or why not?

4-4. “Structure of Attitudes” Consider the three models of attitude structure described in the following three sections of Chapter 4: Expectancy-Value Approach, Affect and Symbols, The Role of Ideology. Describe the model of attitude structure that you prefer the most. Why do you prefer it to the other models?

4-5. “Attitude Structure and Persuasion” The textbook authors use the example of attitudes toward Muslim-Americans as the basis for describing how each of the three structural models—expectancy value, symbolic, ideological—can be used to change attitudes. Think of an issue on which you would like to change the attitudes of other people. How could your insight into your preferred model help you craft a persuasive message on that issue?

Chapter 5 “The Power of Our Passions”

5-2. “Latitudes” The authors describe the concepts of “Latitude of Acceptance”, “Latitude of Rejection”, and “Latitude of Non-Commitment”. The authors state that, “Studies indicated that extremity of position influenced the size of the latitudes of rejection and acceptance (Sherif, Sherif, & Nebergall, 1965). Individuals with strong – in particular, extreme – views on a topic have large latitudes of rejection. They reject nearly all opposing arguments and accept only statements that are adjacent to their own stands on the issue. This is one reason why it is hard to change these folks’ minds.” Accordingly, I want you to think of an issue that you think is important, but that you do not take an “extreme” position on. In regards to this particular attitude, what sorts of positions are within your “Latitude of Acceptance”, your “Latitude of Rejection”, and your “Latitude of Non-Commitment.”

5-3. “Assimilation and Contrast” What is meant by the terms assimilation and contrast in the context of Chapter 5? Describe experiences from your daily life where you have experienced or witnessed these processes.

5-4. “Ego Involvement” What is ego involvement? In what two ways are ego involved individuals likely to differ from non-ego involved individuals? Describe a real-life instance where you, or someone you know, holds an ego-involved attitude.

5-5. “Partisanship and Capital Punishment” Summarize the research methods and findings of Lord and colleagues (1979) and Kahan and colleagues (2017). What real world implications do you think this research has?

5-6. Box 5.2 “Anti-Vaxxers: A Case Study in the Power and Distortions of Strong Attitudes”. Read this case study on the views of anti-vaxxers. Describe another real-life situation where you have seen similar examples of the power and distortions of strong attitudes.

5-7. “Attitude Accessibility” What are three criticisms or proposed limitations of attitude accessibility theory?

Chapter 6 “Attitudes: Functions and Consequences”
6-1. Briefly discuss at least 3 of the 6 basic functions of attitudes covered at the start of the chapter.

6-2. “Attitudes and Behavior” The authors identify three types of factors that moderate the relationship between attitudes and behavior: a) aspects of the situation including norms and scripts, (b) characteristics of the person including self-monitoring and direct experience, and (c) characteristics of the attitude including whether the attitude is general or specific and the strength of the attitude. Describe how each of these types of factors moderates the relationship between attitudes and behavior.

6-3. Earlier in the same section, the authors ask you to consider the following, “Kelly has strong values, but you wouldn’t guess this by observing her in everyday situations. She is charming, likeable, and adept at getting along with different kinds of people. Her friends sometimes call her a chameleon. Yet Kelly has strong views on certain issues, notably the environment and protecting endangered species. At a party, conversation turns to politics and several people advocate drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Will Kelly take issue with their position?” Based on your discussion of the factors moderating the relationship between attitudes and behaviors, how would you expect Kelly to respond and why?

6-4. “Models of Attitude–Behavior Consistency Relations” Based on the evidence discussed in Chapter 6, which of the following model seems to be a stronger: Reasoned Action Approach or Accessibility Theory? Why? What are some criticisms and limitations of each approach?

6-5. “Implications for Persuasion” What are the six strategies for persuasion suggested by the textbook authors based on Reasoned Action and Accessibility Theories? Consider the strategy to “Appeal to Social Norms” and discuss how you could use that strategy to change someone’s behavior in an area of your choosing.

Chapter 7 “Attitude Measurement”
7-1. Let’s say you wanted to conduct research measuring attitudes towards online courses. Come up with one example of an item to measure such an attitude using a Likert scale, one item using a Guttman scale, and one item on a semantic-differential scale.

7-2. “Pitfalls in Attitude Measurement” Discuss how factors related to context and wording may bias responses on attitude measures. Also, what three other factors are mentioned as causing inaccuracies in attitude measurement?

7-3. “Other Ways to Tap Attitudes” What are some limitations and weaknesses regarding the use of physiological measures or neuroscientific measures to assess attitudes?

7-4. “Implicit Association Test” Go to the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/research/) and complete at least one IAT. Discuss the results of at least one IAT that you took. Were they surprising? Are the results consistent with your consciously held attitudes and values? How might your implicit attitudes affect your behavior in ways that are difficult to notice or control?

Chapter 8 “Processing Persuasive Communications”
8-1. Describe “inoculation theory” as it relates to persuasion and the earliest research findings that support the theory. What are some real-world applications of the theory? Think of a specific issue / situation where you might try to persuade others. How might you use inoculation to protect against an opposing viewpoint?

8-2. “ELM Principles” Describe the Elaboration Likelihood Model. What are the two routes to persuasion posited by the model? Under what circumstances does each pathway work? What role do motivation and ability play in the model?

8-3. “ELM Predictions and a Classic Experiment” Briefly summarize the methods and results of the experiment by Petty, Cacioppo, and Goldman (1981) described in the textbook. How does the elaboration likelihood model explain these findings?

8-4. “Online Bamboozling” Read the example in this section regarding the fake 5-star product reviews. Have you ever noticed reviews that were of questionable validity for products online? If so, how did this affect your attitude about the product or company?

8-5. “Complexities, Complexities: The Multiple Functions Postulate” Briefly Summarize the Multiple Functions Postulate

8-6. “Criticisms and Reconciliations” What are some limitations of the elaboration likelihood model and how might these limitations be reconciled?

Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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